MSM: Jefferson changed ‘subjects’ to ‘citizens’ in Declaration of Independence

(WashingtonPost) – “Subjects.”

That’s what Thomas Jefferson first wrote in an early draft of the Declaration of Independence to describe the people of the 13 colonies.

But in a moment when history took a sharp turn, Jefferson sought quite methodically to expunge the word, to wipe it out of existence and write over it. Many words were crossed out and replaced in the draft, but only one was obliterated.

Over the smudge, Jefferson then wrote the word “citizens.”

No longer subjects to the crown, the colonists became something different: a people whose allegiance was to one another, not to a faraway monarch.

Scholars of the revolution have long speculated about the “citizens” smear — wondering whether the erased word was “patriots” or “residents” — but now the Library of Congress has determined that the change was far more dramatic.

Using a modified version of the kind of spectral imaging technology developed for the military and for monitoring agriculture, research scientists teased apart the mystery and reconstructed the word that Jefferson banished in 1776.

“Seldom can we re-create a moment in history in such a dramatic and living way,” Library of Congress preservation director Dianne van der Reyden said at Friday’s announcement of the discovery.

“It’s almost like we can see him write ‘subjects’ and then quickly decide that’s not what he wanted to say at all, that he didn’t even want a record of it,” she said. “Really, it sends chills down the spine.”

The library deciphered the hidden “subjects” several months ago, the first major finding attributed to its new high-tech instruments. By studying the document at different wavelengths of light, including infrared and ultraviolet, researchers detected slightly different chemical signatures in the remnant ink of the erased word than in “citizens.” Those differences allowed the team to bring the erased word back to life.

But the task was made more difficult by the way Jefferson sought to match the lines and curves of the underlying smudged letters with the new letters he wrote on top of them. It took research scientist Fenella France weeks to pull out each letter until the full word became apparent.

“It’s quite amazing how he morphed ‘subjects’ into ‘citizens,’ ” she said. “We did the reverse morphing back to ‘subjects.’ ”

France said the possibility that the erased word was “subjects” came up during a talk she gave to library donors and visitors about how to study historical documents without harming them. France had determined that a word existed beneath “citizens,” and she asked the group for ideas. One woman called out “subjects,” and library staff members immediately realized that she was on to something. The intensive work on the document soon began.

The erased word is on the third of the draft’s four pages, in the section that addressed grievances against King George III and outlined his incitement of “treasonable insurrections.” The sentence is not found in the later Declaration of Independence, but “citizens” is used elsewhere in that document and “subjects” is not.

Scholars previously determined that Jefferson had been writing his early version based on the first draft of Virginia’s constitution, where the words “our fellow subjects” appear.

Finding Jefferson’s erased word is the library’s greatest accomplishment using its new technology, but several other projects are in progress. The imaging device, for instance, found thumb and fingerprints on the Gettysburg Address using infrared light, and library researchers are seeking to determine whether they are President Abraham Lincoln’s.

Light outside the visible range has also brought to life details of Pierre L’Enfant’s design for Washington and notes on papers of Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin.

Van der Reyden said the research and discoveries illustrate why it’s so important to keep and protect original documents. The erased “subjects,” she said, could have been detected only from Jefferson’s original draft.

Source: Washington Post

Advertisements

2 thoughts on “MSM: Jefferson changed ‘subjects’ to ‘citizens’ in Declaration of Independence

  1. on this independence day weekend
    how about a little quiz
    why do we spend a trillion dollars per year on defense
    when we won’t admit who the real enemy is?

    the exact identy of the foe we’re fight
    has yet to be defined
    while we’re more tax payers money than the next 25 countries combined.

    we’ve troops in 140 foreign countries
    with hundereds of bases overseas
    serving as the muscle for globalists
    nothing more than mercenaries.

    while at home, we have a tyrannical federal govt
    that’s completely off the rail
    runnin banks, wall street, car companies, healthcare, oil spill
    but they can’t deliver the mail

    while they’re at it they’ll save the planet too
    cause it’s getting warm, says Al Gore
    and if their cap and trade tax can’t steal enough money
    they intend to borrow some more.

    we’ve thousands of unconstitutional offices, bureaus and agencies,
    and an inept congressional mob
    they want to control every aspect of your life
    cause taking care of the people’s their job

    because of the FED the economy is near dead
    and the dollar is in the tank
    and when your grandchildren are born on welfare
    you’ll have both political parties to thank

    the FED loans the treasury fiat money
    and put the interest payment on your children’s backs
    their plan is to enslave the people
    with their new and endless tax.

    the president has turned into an emperor
    just a part of what’s wrong with our land
    a federal govt. which ignores the constitution is more dangerous
    than alcaida or the taliban

    politicians lied when they swore to uphold the constitution
    that’s grounds for another revolution
    they shred the sacred document that they promise to defend
    it’s time to wake up america, washington’s your enemy, not your friend

    The government is NOT your country,
    don’t fall for this age-old ruse
    for while trying to support your government,
    your country suffers unconscionable abuse.

    our southern border is porous
    for those who abhore us
    while around the globe we aspire
    to make others free,
    while American’s can’t see
    we’ve become the new Roman empire

    perhaps to avoid freedom’s outright confiscation
    states should get together and start a new nation.
    we could call it America 2.0, a move politicians dread.
    but if we must live as serfs, I rather be dead.

    i don’t know what would happen if states tried to seceed
    i don’t know if there needs be a fight
    I don’t know if a second attempt would succeed
    but i’m sure the south was right

    why would you stay on a sinking ship
    with threats of a presumed legal tether
    stay out of the lifeboat like joined at the hip
    by the argument we should all stick together.

    they sign legislation they don’t even read
    try to disguise it as government, it’s nothin but greed
    while we do our best to be good citizens and not panic
    while busy rearranging deck chairs on the titanic.

    states had better step up to the plate
    and grow a set of balls
    take their sovereignty and head for the exit
    before the republic falls

    Or here’s an idea…since we have the finest military on the planet
    and America’s freedom is under attack
    bring the troops home and drive the terrorists from Washington
    so we can have our country back.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s